The scientist has a lot of experience with ignorance and doubt and uncertainty, and this experience is of very great importance, I think. When a scientist doesn’t know the answer to a problem, he is ignorant. When he has a hunch as to what the result is, he is uncertain. And when he is pretty damn sure of what the result is going to be, he is still in some doubt. We have found it of paramount importance that in order to progress we must recognize our ignorance and leave room for doubt. Scientific knowledge is a body of statements of varying degrees of certainty-some most unsure, some nearly sure, but none absolutely certain. — “What Do You Care What Other People Think?”: Further Adventures of a Curious Character by Richard P. Feynman, p.186 (via scipsy)
46 microscope slides containing ultra-thin sections of Einstein’s brain go on display at the Mütter Museum in Philadelphia. Evi Numen/ Mütter Museum of The College of Physicians of Philadelphia/ Live Science.
Flow over a swept wing behaves very differently than a straight fixed wing or an airfoil. Instead of flowing straight along the chord of the wing in a two-dimensional fashion, air is also directed along the wing, parallel to the leading edge. The above oil flow visualization on a swept wing airplane model shows this curvature of streamlines. As a result of this three-dimensional flow behavior, boundary layers on swept wings are subject to the crossflow instability, which manifests as co-rotating vortices aligned to within a few degrees of the streamlines. Triggering this boundary layer instability can lead to turbulence and higher drag for the aircraft.
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